Signs and Symptoms of Type II Diabetes

Medically Reviewed by Dr Sravya, MBBS, MS 

Are you thirsty more often? Do you make frequent rounds of the toilet for peeing?

If yes, then with these symptoms, only one doubt comes to mind that, I need to check blood sugar levels! Do I have symptoms of diabetes?? Most people are aware about diabetes. As every third person is suffering from it. Some above 40 years old check blood sugar levels every six months out of fear of diabetes and it has become a routine test now. But, do you know many people are unaware that they have type II diabetes because they have mild signs and symptoms, which go unnoticed or some of them have no signs and symptoms at all. So, tests are not carried out and it may go undiagnosed till the signs and symptoms turn into the complications of diabetes.

It has two types, type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes is early age onset diabetes and type II is an adult onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is common; around 90 percent of the cases. Abnormal weight gain seems to be an important cause for type II diabetes not only in adults but also in children. So, it’s important to know about type II diabetes and how this lifelong disease manifests itself with signs and symptoms.

What is type II diabetes:

Diabetes is a disease which can’t be cured only controlled, it continues to be a part of life once affected but can be prevented with effective and prompt measures with strict discipline. It’s a lifelong disease.

type 2 diabetes symptoms

Body needs energy to work, this energy is obtained by body cells through sugar or glucose. Cells in the muscles take up sugar from blood and use it for bodily movements. Taking up sugar by cells is controlled by a hormone called ‘insulin’.

Insulin is produced by the beta langerhans cells of pancreas, when these cells stop or reduce the production of insulin, insulin cannot make glucose available to cells that fail to take up required glucose for energy and thus glucose starts accumulating in the blood. Thus increasing the level of glucose in the blood called diabetes.

What are the causes:

People believe that eating sugar causes diabetes and they often ask doctors that they don’t eat sugar then why they suffer from diabetes.
It is a myth that eating too much sugar causes diabetes, but it’s not the cause, rather restricting a sugar-containing diet after suffering from diabetes is recommended. There are different processes going on in the body which make cells resistant to insulin. So there is a wide range of causes of type II diabetes. Lets see what are the factors which make cells resistant to insulin.

What are the risk factors:

1) Obesity:

Obesity is the most common contributing factor for diabetes. Weight gain is becoming a big concern for the world population as a result of lifestyle changes like-

Sometimes genetic or hereditary factors may contribute to the increased risk of type II diabetes.

2) Family history:

History of diabetes in parents, siblings or immediate relatives can pose the risk of diabetes.

3) Prediabetes:

It is a condition in which glucose levels rise to a limit but not enough to call it a diabetes. It is primary stage of diabetes with or without signs and symptoms but reversible. If proper preventive measures like exercise and a healthy diet are taken, it will not result in full blown diabetes.

4) Old age:

People older than 45 years with family history of diabetes are more prone. As the age advances, pancreatic cells release less insulin and cells start to become resistant.

5) Polycystic ovarian disease:

This is the most common cause of type II diabetes in women affecting half of women with PCOS. Pancreas is a gland that secretes insulin, a hormone to regulate sugar levels. Any hormonal imbalance can result in diabetes like PCOS.
PCOS is ovarian disease with release of male hormone testosterone which stimulates the release of insulin causing rise in levels of insulin in blood called hyperinsulinemia, this in turn causes cells to become resistant to insulin and causing diabetes type II.

6) Pregnancy:

Hormonal changes and weight gain make the cells resistant to insulin in pregnancy. This is called gestational diabetes and is fairly common. Around 10% of women suffer from high blood sugar levels during pregnancy with symptoms of type II diabetes.

7) Excessive alcohol consumption:

This is clubbed with fatty liver which in turn develops into diabetes as liver plays a very important role in metabolism of glucose. It stores the glucose and helps to release it to cells when needed. If liver function is hampered it cannot make glucose available to cells, so sugar levels go on rising in blood called hyperglycemia.

8) Stress:

Stressful conditions have seen in most cases to precipitate diabetes. Being healthy on a mental level is again necessary to keep lifelong diseases away.

Which Signs and symptoms type II diabetes mellitus presents with:

Type II diabetes presents with wide range of symptoms and signs

What are the complications of type II diabetes and how they appear through signs and symptoms:

Diabetes is a disease syndrome which affects entire body parts, brain kidneys, liver, eyes, skin nerves etc. The complications of diabetes are of more concern; they are most common amongst patients of diabetes.

Uncontrolled diabetes for a long duration can result in lifelong complications. Treating diabetes and associated morbidity becomes a challenge.

What complications diabetes may pose let’s see here in detail.

1) Diabetic nephropathy:

It’s a complication related to kidneys where the kidney has to filter glucose molecules to reduce the sugar level from blood and remove it through urine. Glucose molecules are large in size so the process of filtering these molecules, kidney is damaged called nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is a slow growing problem that takes years to develop but this can cause renal failure. Main symptom of this is frequent urination, low clearance of toxic material, and kidney failure.

2) Diabetic retinopathy:

Complications related to eye in the retina, high level of glucose in blood damages retina which functions to see the images. High sugar levels can damage blood vessels. Main symptom is blurred vision.

3) Diabetic neuropathy:

High sugar levels damage the nerves causing loss of sensation in the area affected, especially peripheral nerves of feet. Most common symptom is wounds to the feet go undetected because of loss of sensation. It takes time to heal uncontrolled diabetes and can also produce diabetic foot leading to gangrene. It also produces tingling and numbness of feet.

4) Cardiovascular disease in diabetes:

It is considered as a highest risk factor for diabetic patients which is life threatening high sugar levels damage the blood vessels and nerves of the heart. Most common symptoms are pain in the chest, feeling of pressure, heaviness, angina (heart attack) , fainting, dizziness.

5) Cerebrovascular risk:

As diabetes causes damage to the nerves, blood vessels. It also poses the risk of stroke and paralysis. Symptoms include fainting, headache, confusion, double vision, speech problems, weakness, numbness in one side of the body with loss of sensation.

What are the preventive measures to take:

Conclusion

Type II diabetes is complex and prevalent nowadays. It’s a wonder if anyone leads a normal life without such lifelong diseases. Diabetes is a lifestyle disease. Modernization has contributed a lot to these lifestyle diseases. Stress and sedentary habits play an important role. It affects leading a normal life, but with proactive steps like changing to balanced diets, exercise, one can control this condition. With right knowledge, awareness and consistency in healthy habits one can prevent complications and can lead a fulfilling life even with this complex disease.

“Prevention is always better than cure” is the perfect idiom for these diseases.

Diawhiz is an Indian Health Tech Company Which is Founded With a Motive to Control Diabetes in Multi Disciplinary Approach by a Team of Endocrinologists, Diabetologists, Psychologists, Certified Dieticians, Fitness, Yoga Trainers and Counsellors .

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DiaWhiz ©. All rights reserved.

Diawhiz is an Indian Health Tech Company Which is Founded With a Motive to Control Diabetes in Multi Disciplinary Approach by a Team of Endocrinologists, Diabetologists, Psychologists, Certified Dieticians, Fitness, Yoga Trainers and Counsellors .

What We Offer

Head Office

Hyderabad, India

DiaWhiz ©. All rights reserved.

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